World War I

   Known also as the First World War, World War i dates from July 28, 1914 to November 11, 1918. It was a conflict between the Allies (France, Great Britain, Russia, Belgium, serbia, and, later, the United States) and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire). There were several causes, including an intense naval rivalry between Great Britain and Germany; a rise in nationalism, imperialism and colonialism; and the system of secret alliances (Triple Alliance, Triple Entente, Russian-Serbian Defense Treaty, Treaty of Belgian Neutrality). The immediate cause was the assassination in sarajevo, Bosnia, of the archduke Francis-Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, by a serbian nationalist, in June 1914.
   Political, Diplomatic, and Military Developments 1914: June 28—Assassination at Sarajevo; July 28— Austrian declaration of war on Serbia and Russia (August 6); August 1—German declaration of war on Russia and France (August 3); August 4-British declaration of war on Germany; August 23-Japanese declaration of war on Germany after German violation of Belgian neutrality. italian declaration of neutrality. october 29-Turkish declaration of war on the Allies. Western-front: August—German invasion of Belgium and northern France; september 6-13—Victory of joffre at the marne. September-November— Beginning of sea war and war in Flanders. Front at Ypres. Eastern front: August-October—Russian offensives in East Prussia (September 26— Russian defeat at Tannenberg) and in Galicia. stabilization of front at Niemen. other Fronts: September-December—Austrian setbacks in Serbia; October-December—British entrance in Mesopotamia.
   1915: April 25—italy signs the Treaty of London with the Allies; october 5—Bulgaria joins the side of the Central Powers; Greece remains neutral; Allies put in place naval blockade of Central Powers. Western front: May-September— unsuccessful French attempts to break through in Champagne and Artois (Germans use poison gas). Eastern front: February-september—German offensives in East Prussia and Poland; February-April—Allied setbacks in the Dardanelles (Galipoli) and landing in salonika; october—Bulgaria invades serbia; other fronts: July—italian offensive in Trentino; occupation of German south-West Africa.
   1916: Arab uprising against the Turks; August 27— italy and Romania declare war on Germany; November 21—death of emperor Francis-Joseph and accession of Charles i of Austria. Western front: February 21-December—Battle of verdun (la Voie sacrée); July 1-October—Allied offensive on the somme (British introduce tanks). Eastern front: February—Russian offensives in Armenia and Galicia; October-December—German conquest of Romania. other fronts: January—Allied occupation of the Cameroons. April 28—British defeat at Kut el-Amara. May 31—Battle of Jutland.
   1917: February 1—German emperor William II declares unrestricted submarine warfare. March- November—Russian Revolution. April 6—united states enters on the Allied side.
   November 17—government of georges clemenceau. Western front: April 17—Failure of the nivelle offensive at Chemin des Dames. Crisis in the French army. pétain is supreme commander. August—French assaults at Verdun, Ailette (october). November 20—British assault at Cambrai. Eastern front: october 3— Germans take Riga and occupy Bukovina (July-September). December 15—Russian-German armistice of Brest-Litovsk. other fronts: October 24—Italian defeat at Caporetto. March 10—taking of Baghdad and Jerusalem (December 9) by the British.
   1918: January 8—u.s. president Wilson announces the 14 Points. March 3—Treaty of Brest-Litovsk between Germany and Russia. March 26—foch is commander in chief of Allied forces on the western front. June 7—Treaty of Bucharest. October—Independence of Hungarians, Czechs, and Yugoslavs. November 9—abdication of William II of Germany. November 11—Austria proclaimed a republic. Western front: March 21—German offensives in Picardy and the Marne (June 27) and Champagne (July 18). July-November—Foch's counteroffensives in Champagne and Picardy (August) and the Meuse (September), German retreat at Gand, Mons, and Sedan. November 11—armistice. other fronts: september 15—offensive of Franchet d'Esperey in Macedonia. September 29—Armistice with Bulgaria. september-October—taking of Beirut, Damascus, and Aleppo by the British. october 24—italian victory at Vittorio Veneto. october 30—armistice with Turkey and Austria (November 3). November 13—surrender of the Germans in southEast Africa.
   The results of World War i were the fall of the empires (German, Austrian, Russian, and ottoman), technological and social changes, and the redistribution of the balance of power. For France, which emerged victorious but with demographic and economic setbacks (the war cost 1,350,000 casualties), the period was marked by such political events as the formation of the union sacrée and the advent and fall of a number of governments (Clemenceau), under the presidency of Raymond poincaré.

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

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